Few animals evoke such strong feelings of fear and awe as the tiger. For centuries, its nature has inspired legends, and the occasional inclusion of humans in its diet has fueled the mystique.
Tigers are the largest living felids. Siberian tigers are the largest and most massively built subspecies: a male weighs 384 kg (845 lb).
Like other big cats, the tiger’s body shows adaptations for catching and killing large prey. Their hind limbs are longer than their forelimbs as an adaptation for flight; Their forelimbs and shoulders are very muscular—much larger than their hindlimbs—and the shoulders are equipped with long, sharp, retractable claws that enable them to grasp. and is held captive when it is done. The skull is shortened, thus increasing the shearing leverage of the powerful jaws. The long, flattened canines deliver a quick killing bite.
Unlike the cheetah and the lion, the tiger is not found in open areas. Its niche is the large, solitary hunter and trapper that uses large and large prey that lives in open cover.
Tigers in Prison
The most common social group in a tiger is the mother and the young. However, tigers are well kept in pits or groups in zoos and are seen in zoos (usually females and cubs, but sometimes males and females) in the bait dies in the wild, showing a high level of tolerance. The habitat requirements of the tiger do not favor the development of a complex society and we see a dispersal system. This arrangement is suitable for the task of finding and storing food in a closed habitat where the prey is dispersed singly or in small groups. Under these conditions, the predator gains little by hunting together, but can do better by hunting alone.
In a long-term study of tigers in the Royal Chitwan National Park, in southern Nepal, it was found, using radio-tracking techniques, that males and females lived in home ranges that did not cover with other members of their spouse; The home ranges of women measured about 20 sq. km (8 sq. miles) although males are larger, measuring 60 – 100 sq. km. km (23 – 40 sq. miles). The range of each male citizen is influenced by female characteristics. Small animals sometimes moved through the ranks of the inhabitants, but did not stay there for long. In contrast, in the Soviet Far East, where the prey is dispersed and makes large seasonal movements, the number of tigers is low, less than one adult per 100 sq. km (40 sq. miles).
Land of the Tigers
The Tigers use a variety of methods to maintain the exclusive rights in their home environment. The urine, mixed with anal gland secretions, is smeared on trees, sticks and stones along the paths, and leaves and litter are left in visible places around the land Trees that are cut may be a sign. These chemical and visual signals provide information to animals that are close, and may recognize each other by scent. Males can learn the reproductive status of females, and domesticated animals are made aware of the resident’s presence, thus reducing the possibility of physical conflict and physical injury, which is not possible in the A tiger is free to find food because of its own health. The importance of monitoring was found in the Nepal study, when the tigers did not go to a part of their home range to leave these “occupancy” signs (due to death or capture (including juveniles) lose the site within three to four weeks to partners. animal This shows that the boundaries are constantly being explored and monitored and the tigers living in the surrounding areas are very aware of each other’s habitat.
The long-term independent use of a home site provides great benefits to the occupant. For the female, it is important to be familiar with a certain area, because she needs to kill the prey and always have time to raise the young. When the young are small and cannot follow, he must get food from a small place, because he has to return to feed them every time. Later, as her young grow larger and faster, she must find and kill prey to feed herself and the young.
Territorial advantages differ for males; they maintain three or four times more than women, so diet may not be the main factor. The most important thing is to have wives and fathers of children. Males are not directly involved in raising the young. Although there are not as many reports as lions, there have been some reports of male tigers killing children. These are often associated with the acquisition of one spouse’s home by the other. By killing the offspring of the first male, the male will guarantee that he will enter the heat of the females in his new form and give birth to his children.
There are more young people than there is a door, so many animals, especially young people, live on the side. There is no clear picture of social organization in these small areas, but there are more levels or stability, and there is little repetition.
This external part of the population is important, because it encourages genetic mixing in the breeding population and ensures that there are enough people to fill the gaps that arise. Unfortunately, these tigers usually fight with people, since the habitat they live in is mostly unused by humans and their animals.
The Birth of the Tiger
It can reach sexual maturity by 3 – 4 years. Breeding activity is recorded monthly for tigers from tropical areas, while in the north breeding is restricted to the winter months. The female is only fertile for a few days and can copulate up to 100 times in two days. Three or four cubs, weighing about 1 kg (2.2 lb) each, are born blind and helpless. The female feeds them alone, and returns to the “den” to feed them until they are old enough to start following her, around eight weeks. Cubs are dependent on their mother for food until they are 18 months old and may continue to rely on their mother for up to 2 – 2.5 years, when they disperse to find food. their own homes.
All subspecies exist. Its wide geographical distribution, covering a variety of habitats, makes the tiger a versatile species. In fact, it is a very important predator with very specific ecological requirements and is much less adaptable than the leopard. Once found throughout much of Asia, the tiger’s current distribution and reduced numbers indicate that demands for large prey and adequate cover are becoming It is difficult to meet due to suitable habitats for large wild hoofed mammals, and therefore tigers are separated for agricultural purposes. Because most tigers are small, less than 1,000 sq.km (290 sq.mil), and isolated, the population size is small and there are few or no interpopulations.
Only a few tigers become human food; in fact, they avoid human contact. Some cannibals may be old, but many healthy young tigers also have diseases that are common. This type of behavior can start with a disaster—an encounter that almost immediately ends with a person being killed. Sometimes, a single piece is all a tiger needs to learn to kill a human. What the tiger does next and becomes a rational man-eater depends on the right moment. There is a theory that the “aversive” to meet people on the first person will kill many things to discourage further incidents. Another factor is the availability of other foods.
Tigers are solitary hunters, often searching for prey rather than waiting for an ambush. A man will usually walk 10 – 20 km (6 – 12 miles) during a night of hunting. Tigos do not catch their prey easily – perhaps only one in 10 to 20 attempts is successful.
After finding the hole, the tiger then uses the information. The tiger mainly uses cover for concealment to move closer to the prey (1). Must approach within 20 km (66 ft) or so if the final flight is to be successful. The approach is very careful, with the tiger placing each foot on the ground and pausing every now and then to check the situation. It means a semi-crouch or crouch, with the head up, during the pose. After taking advantage of the distance and the position of the prey, the tiger gathers itself and quickly jumps at its victim (2), covering the middle distance to some limits. When connected, the moment of the attack can throw the animal off its feet, and if the prey is flying, the slide can be thrown with the forepaw if it is unbalanced. A tiger’s attack from the side or from behind; It does not launch itself into the air or spring its prey from a distance. While it grabs its prey by the shoulders, back and neck (3) with its claws, the tiger’s hind legs rarely leave the ground. At this point, the prey is thrown off its feet, if it has not already done the attack. The neck or neck may be bitten by contact or the tiger will take the victim down (4).
If the prey weighs more than half the size of the tiger, the bite of the neck is usually used and death may be caused by the stomach. The bond can be held for several minutes after death. The kills are carried or dragged into the dense cover and the tigers continue to eat the pile. It is common for a tiger to eat 20 – 35 kg (44 – 77 lb) of meat a night, but on some days it eats less, about 15 – 18 kg/day (33 – 40 lbs)
Tigis stay close to their kill and continue feeding at their leisure until they are reduced to skin and bones – the average time in Chitwan National Park is three days each kill Small prey, such as barking deer, are eaten in a single meal, where large sambar, elk and bison provide food for several days except for some tigers (usually females and males). youth) nursing the corpse.
A tigress with young needs to kill frequently in order to provide food – estimated to be once every 5 – 6 days, or 60 – 70 animals per year, for a female with two children. This compares to a murder every 8 days or 40 – 50 murders per year for a woman in that area without a dependent youth.
A tiger will eat what it catches, but large ungulates) large adults, and young or old animals) in the 50 – 200 kg (110 – 440 lb) range will eat the most. . So, there are sambar, chital, Swamp deer, red deer, Russian deer, and wild boar. Tigis take large game such as rhino and bull elephant, water buffalo, moose, wapiti and gaur. In many places, agriculture was quickly taken away, especially where wild animals were extinct.