The Talpidae family includes moles, shrew moles, and desmans, all of which are native to northern North America and Eurasia. These very large cutthroats (29 species in 12 genera) are very secretive and because of their way of life, in general, they are well studied. The species that has, today, received the most attention from natural and biological sources is the European mole. (Talpa europaea)whose lifestyle and behavior may be similar to other species in this family.
Moles are widely known for their subterranean life forms. Their wide limbs, like a spade, developed as a powerful dig, connected to the muscular shoulders and deep breastbone. The skin of the breast is thicker than other parts of the body because this part supports a lot of the weight of the mole when digging or lying down. Behind the large shoulders, the body is almost smooth, tapering to small hips with short hindquarters (not suitable for digging), and a short, bushy tail, which is carried straight.
In most species, both limbs have extra bones to increase the surface of the feet, to further support the hind limbs, and to move the ground with the forelimbs. The long head tapers to a prominent red fleshy nose. In the star-nosed mole of North America (Condylura cristata)This organ has 22 tentacles that carry thousands of sensors.
How do moles dig holes?
The role of the mole is often misunderstood. Moles don’t always dig for food. Instead of the tunnel system, which is the permanent habitat of the resident animal, it acts as a food trap that constantly collects invertebrate prey such as ground meat and insect larvae. As they move through the soil column, the invertebrates fall into the animal’s burrow and do not escape before being detected by the alert mole.
When the prey is found, it is immediately captured, and if it is an earthworm, the head is cut off. The worm is pulled forward by the hooves of the front legs, which then squeeze the dirt and sand from the worm’s body to injure the tooth—one of the most common causes of death. mole
If the mole notices the immediate size of the prey, it will try to catch as many animals as possible, keeping this in a secret place, where it will be well protected. This secret, which is close to the mole’s single nest, is placed in the ground so that earthworms live but do not normally work for several months. Therefore, if an animal has a period of lack of food it can easily load this waste before using the necessary tools. physical care for small search. When choosing it for the store, moles are seen in the big selection, by choosing the biggest thing available.
How do moles make tunnels?
The construction and maintenance of the tunnel takes up most of the working time of the mole. The mole burrows vigorously throughout the year, although once its abdomen is established, there may be little evidence on the ground of the mole’s presence. Moles form a complex system of holes, which usually have many levels. The mole begins to dig a tunnel system. It creates a straight path of up to 20 meters (22 yards) before connecting the side branches. This may be an attempt to find nearby animals, while at the same time creating a food trap for later use. The tunnels were later extended and many were made under these first tunnels. This tunnel-level system can result in the burrows of one animal on top of those of its neighbors without being paired.
The Management Theory of Mole
Moles have a strong sense of purpose and often make their tunnels in the same place every year.
In permanent feeding areas, existing tunnels can be used by several generations of moles. Some animals may be driven from their own ways by the attack of a stronger animal, and in such cases the prey must go and establish a new system.
These master engineers are very familiar with each part of their own country and they are suspicious of changes in a tunnel, which makes it difficult for them to catch. If, for example, the normal route to the nest or feeding area is blocked, the mole will dig around or under the obstruction, rejoining the original tunnel with minimal digging. .
Our knowledge of the sensory world of molecules is very limited. They are among the only fossorial species, the the eyes are small and hidden by black fur or, like the blind mole Talpa caeca, covered by skin. They are unable to see shadows instead relying heavily on vision to locate prey or for orientation.
The absence of ears in all species is due to the absence of external ear flaps and a thick covering of fur over the ear opening. However, ultrasonics are believed to be an important means of communication between fossorial and nocturnal species. But of all the senses, olfaction seems to be the most important – a fact supported by the nose section of many species, with an army of sensors stored in it. location.
The short birth period is a difficult time for moles, because females are pregnant for only 24 to 48 hours. During this period, men leave their usual routines of work and work, to spend a lot of time and energy looking for mates. Mating takes place in the womb of a woman and is the only time of non-combat between the sexes.
The young, with an average of three in the litter, are born in the nest four weeks later. Less than 4 grams (ounces), green babies cannot maintain body heat and rely on their mother for warmth. The young remain until they are five weeks old when they begin to forage for short periods near the nesting chamber. Soon after, they go with their mother in search of the hole and can be dispersed from there by their own will, those who do not leave will be immediately expelled by the mother.